Mendel`s Law of Independent Assortment

The law of independent sorting states that the process of random segregation and sorting of pairs of alleles during gamete formation leads to the production of gametes with all possible combinations of alleles in equal numbers. It is expressed by the heredity of two or more different traits associated with different genes. This is one of Gregor Mendel`s legacy principles based on his work in garden peas. After the rediscovery of his work, they were accepted and called Mendel`s laws. What is a standalone range? The independent assortment indicates that the inheritance of different genes occurs independently of each other. In the law of independent sorting, the combination of genes and their probability are calculated and assumed by multiplying the probabilities of each gene. In addition, the probability of having one gene does not affect the probability of having the other. According to the law of independent sorting, the alleles of two other genes are sorted independently into gametes. The allele received for one gene does not affect the allele received for another gene. The independent assortment principle describes how different genes separate independently from each other as reproductive cells develop. Independent selection of genes and their corresponding traits was first observed in 1865 by Gregor Mendel during his studies of pea plant genetics. Mendel made dihybrid crosses, which are crosses between organisms that differ in terms of two characteristics. He found that trait combinations in the offspring of his crosses did not always match the trait combinations in parent organisms.

Based on his data, he formulated the principle of independent assortment. In one case, genes cannot be sorted completely at random. This happens with linked genes or genes that share the same chromosome. However, the crossing process during meiosis ensures that these genes are also rearranged. When crossing, homologous parts of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be exchanged. This ensures that the linked genes are also sorted independently of each other. “The law of independent sorting states that alleles of different genes are inherited independently within sexually reproducing organisms.” For example, one gamete may end up with all maternal chromosomes, while another may have a mixture of maternal and paternal chromosomes. This also means that the genes on these chromosomes are sorted independently.

In fact, the law of independent assortment creates great diversity based on different combinations of genes that have not appeared before. Mendel`s law of independent sorting states that the resulting chromosomes are randomly sorted by mixing maternal and paternal chromosomes. Ultimately, the zygote has a mix of chromosomes rather than a defined set of characteristics specific to each parent. Therefore, chromosomes are considered sorted independently, so the zygote will eventually have a combination of different maternal and paternal chromosomes. The 3:1 phenotypic ratio of yellow: green color and the 3:1 ratio of the round: wrinkled seed shape during monohybrid crossing was also maintained in the dihybrid cross. Thus, he came to the conclusion that the characters are distributed independently and inherited independently. Based on this observation, he developed his third law – the law of independent assortment. The independent range is a basic principle of genetics developed by a monk named Gregor Mendel in the 1860s.

Mendel formulated this principle after discovering another principle known as Mendel`s law of segregation, both governing heredity. Another feature of the independent range is recombination. Recombination occurs during meiosis and is a process that breaks down and recombines pieces of DNA to create new combinations of genes. Recombination confuses parts of maternal and paternal genes, ensuring that genes are independent of each other. It is important to note that there is an exception to the law of independent sorting for genes that are very close to each other on the same chromosome due to genetic linkage. From these experiences, Mendel formulated what is now known as Mendel`s law of independent assortment. This law states that pairs of alleles separate independently during gamete formation. Therefore, the traits are transmitted to the offspring independently.